11-12-2017, 17:02
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Satanoperca pappaterra

Satanoperca pappaterra inhabits rivers of South America in the wild (headwaters of the Rio Negro River and tributaries of the Orinoco River). Fish are found in places with sandy soil, with a large layer of fallen leaves and submerged tree branches.

Fry fish are gray, and young fish have a pair of dark spots on their bodies. Adult females have a more rounded abdomen and are slightly smaller than males. In males, the 4th and 5th rays of the dorsal plumage are elongated. The maximum size of the fish is 18-20 cm.

The aquarium should be spacious, with a volume of 300 liters or more. Keep Satanoperca pappaterra should be kept in a group of at least 5-8 individuals. Over time, a hierarchy is formed in the group, when weaker fish are subordinate to the stronger ones. When keeping fewer fish, the stronger individuals begin to chase their smaller brethren, as a result of which they will constantly hide in hiding. It is possible to keep in a common aquarium with other peaceful fish.

The most important element of the decoration is a soft sandy substrate, as these fish feed by sifting sand through their gills. Coarser substrates, such as gravel or small pebbles, cause the fish some discomfort by traumatizing the gill filaments. Otherwise, the internal design of the aquarium is a matter of personal taste. In the aquarium you can place tree branches, snags and large stones. Leaf litter is a typical feature of the natural environment, but is not recommended in aquariums, because in the process of feeding fish begin to dig in the ground and raise such a mud that the filter element of the water filter is very quickly clogged and ceases to fulfill its function.

Water quality is of paramount importance when keeping Satanoperca pappaterra. Fish are very susceptible to fluctuations in water chemistry. In this regard, do not start fish in the aquarium, which has not yet established a biological balance. As a water filter is desirable to use an external filter canister type. Necessary weekly change of at least 1/2 of the aquarium water fresh. Water parameters: temperature 20-28 ° C, hardness dH 1-10 °, acidity pH 5,5-7,5.

Lighting should be moderate, diffused. The duration of the daylight hours is about 9-10 hours per day.

In natural conditions, fish feed on aquatic and terrestrial invertebrates, insect larvae, as well as seeds of various plants and detritus. In aquarium conditions, fish can be fed chopped shrimp meat, live and frozen moths, artemia, dry flake food containing spirulina. Feed the fish should be 3-4 times a day in small portions.


Its sexual maturity Satanoperca pappaterra reaches the age of 1.5 years.

Breeding fish, although difficult, but possible. On spawning choose formed pairs of fish, in no case should not try to pick up a partner for a fish yourself - it will not work out. Stimulate spawning balanced nutrition and weekly replacement of 70% of aquarium water fresh.

Before spawning, the male takes care of the female. Producers occupy the territory near driftwood or a large stone. The female lays eggs in small portions, and the male immediately fertilizes it. In total, the female hatch several hundred eggs. After spawning is finished producers bury the eggs, covering it with a three-centimeter layer of sand. Female and male are near the clutch guarding it from other fish. The eggs are incubated for about 3 days. On the eve of how to turn off the larvae, producers dig up the clutch, on the 5th day fry begin to swim and eat. After 2-3 weeks, the fry are desirable to transfer to another aquarium.

Fry fed artemia and dry food designed for fry.

Satanoperca pappaterra

Satanoperca pappaterra has a life expectancy of about 10-15 years.

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